DNA analysis, often means an examination of a person's genetic material, DNA. The medicine may be used DNA analysis to search for mutations or other characteristics of genes or other parts of the DNA molecule that can cause inherited diseases, lead carrier status for disease or represent different risks of disease. In kinship studies (e.g. Paternity cases), the identification of the dead, and by examination of the biological evidence used DNA analysis to the greatest extent possible to detect individual differences.
Such research is particularly focused on the parts of DNA that do not represent genes, and most used is the so-called repetitive DNA, i.e. sections of the genetic molecule in which short or long sequences of building blocks are repeated, often in a row (tandem repeat). These areas show a high degree of distinctive differences in the number of repetitions of a given party is dissimilar from peculiar to individual.
In forensic medicine currently used short tandem repeat regions (STR). Because these areas can be copied by so-called PCR technique (see the polymerase ), required minimal amounts of DNA to characterize an individual. If several such as STR'er combined - eg. 11 or more - is the probability that two unrelated individuals shall have the same profile extremely low.
Anti-sense DNA strand, the DNA strand of a gene that is used as a template for RNA polymerase during transcription to synthesize a complementary mRNA strand.
DNA adducts, compounds that are bound to the DNA molecule and to prevent this molecule can replicate itself exactly. DNA adducts thus gives rise to mutations. An example of compounds that form DNA adducts, is PAH'er (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene pyrene), found in cigarette smoke and tar and is formed by all combustion of organic materials.