DNA sequencing. Techniques for accessing base pairs sequence, DNA sequencing, gives us access to the genetic code. The most commonly used technique today is called dideoxy sekvensering or Sanger sequencing, named after Frederick Sanger who developed the method. This technique uses a DNA polymerase , which in test tube can make a copy of a DNA-bit (Primary). A synthetic oligonucleotide added is used as a primer and decide where the copy should begin. As the building blocks used four deoxy ribonukleosid triphosphate, but it also adds an analogue of one of these. This lack hydroxyl in 3-position deoxyribose group. This deoxy ribon nucleoside triphosphate will be introduced in the growing DNA strand in competition with the corresponding normal nucleoside triphosphate.
Modern instruments for DNA sequencing can analyze hundreds of template DNA simultaneously and read 500-1000 bases for each reaction. The human genome was read in factories with hundreds of such instruments.