Properties not related to their specific DNA gene.
Many functional "anonymous" genes are found in the sequence database that ORFer (open reading frames, an open reading frame), which proves that there are functional genes. When you have found chromosomal localization of a Mendelian trait or disease, we can now take on ORFene and known genes in this area to find the mutation that proves the right gene. How it was found that the "new" gene BSCL2 for Seip disease.
The genetic maps of each chromosome have been determined by typing of genetic markers (polymorphisms) in families, while the physical genetic structure refers to the partitioning of chromosomes in cell cultures after irradiation (radiation mapping), to other forms of chromosomal abnormalities and to the cloning of large or smaller pieces of chromosomes in the DNA to "vectors," especially in yeast (YAC) and bacterial (BAC clones).
DNA variation as discussed above has led to detailed maps. It was in 1996 and systematically searching for and then family-tested and chromosome mapping 5264 dinucleotide (two-base pair) micro satellites (approached). The physical length of DNA which were over totaled 3.164 billion base pairs, while the genetic length (in percent crossing over) was 2730 centimorgan (cm) in men and 4397 cm in women. The difference is due to the smaller chromosomes are shuffled by the crosses in men than in women. Since 60% of chromosome sections had these STR markers that vary greatly in population by less than 2% cross-over distance, and only 1% of the genome had distances of 10 cms, allowing them approached us to find chromosomal localization to many more single affection's hijacker. The most detailed genetic map in humans is currently based on 143 Icelandic families tested for over 8000 micro satellite markers.
New discovery is that the crossover frequency in women varies much more than in men, and from pregnancy to pregnancy.