Recombinant DNA, artificially assembled DNA molecules (DNA) from two different sources, either from the same or from unusual organisms. Certain enzymes ( restriction enzymes ) can split the DNA in such a way that the parts can be easily joined together with another enzyme (ligase), so-called genspleising. DNA from one organism can use this method, spliced with DNA from any other organism . Recombinant DNA methodology or genspleising is an important part of modern genetic engineering .
In 1973, highlighted some research with recombinant DNA may lead to unknown risks, eg. production of micro-organisms that could transmit infection to new diseases or cancer. The fear led to the researchers in 1974 ordered to stop all research with recombinant DNA until the risk factors were carefully considered. There are now guidelines for laboratories to work with recombinant DNA.
Techniques of genetic engineering offer previously unimagined opportunities for exploration of DNA structure and function and for use in medical genetic practice, and they have revolutionized the Animal and plant breeding.
There is continuing the discussion about the ethical responsibility of using genetic engineering. Work with recombinant DNA regulated by the Act of 2 April 1993 on the production and use of genetically modified organisms (Gene Technology Act) and the Act of 5 august 1994 on medical applications of biotechnology.